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Teaching Philosophy 

Besides research, I occasionally teach students, give guest lectures and supervise and consult master's and bachelor theses.


I believe in the Humboldtian ideal that teaching must be based on research. I am deeply committed to the value of academic freedom.


Below are several key interconnected aspects of my teaching philosophy.

1) Developing a sense of truth, beauty, goodness and compassion.

2) Co-learning and co-producing knowledge. I firmly believe that teaching is not a one-way direction. The best learning is a mutual learning process. Importantly, co-learning and knowledge co-production are based on the belief in the equality of all stakeholders (e.g., equality between teachers and students).

3) Encouraging free spirit and novel ideas. Freedoms of thinking and expression are paramount.

4) Promoting self-learning and exploration that are driven by curiosity. 

5) Pursuing excellence and transforming ourselves via education and practice. 

6) Exposing and opening up to diverse ideas, views and theories. True learning and understanding happen when we engage with opposing or unconventional ideas, views, and theories that we find difficult and uncomfortable. 

7) Keeping an open heart.  Always be ready for dialogue and communication, including with people who strongly oppose our views.

8) Encouraging students to learn at least one language that is drastically different from their mother tongue and live in a culture that is drastically different from their culture for an extended period of time. 

9) Be brave! Trying out new ideas and methods.

"Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity (Unmündigkeit). Immaturity is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance. Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) 'Have the courage to use your own understanding,' is therefore the motto of the enlightenment."

Immanuel Kant 1798

In  practice

Practice (1)  Let students design their own curriculum and reading lists.  Usually, students do best when they pick something that interests them to study.


Practice (2) Encourage students to reach out to the experts on the specific topics they research rather than depend on their teachers. 

Practice (3). Learning and Exploring ways and methods to think clearly. Muddled thinking often leads to suffering and pain.

Practice (4) Write simply and clearly. Profound truth can often be articulated by using simple words.

Practice (5) Keep grounded and real situations in which we live in, but never lose the ideals and hope.

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